Quantum computing and simulation
Image courtesy: Atom Computing
Quantum computers exploit quantum mechanical phenomena for information processing. Instead of the 0 and 1 bits of classical computers, quantum computers use qubits as basic unit, which can exist as a coherent superposition of both states. This way, they can perform calculations much faster, and have the ability to process problems that are too complex for classical computers. This feature is referred to as the "quantum advantage". Quantum computers therefore promise to accelerate pharmaceutical or climate research, among others.
While there is a variety of physical qubit implementation, qubits based on photons, trapped atoms, or ions can offer enormous advantage in the development of scalable quantum computers.
Quantum simulators may be understood as a programmable class of quantum computers capable of solving specific quantum problems such as those occurring in physics experiments. They help understanding the complex nature of low-temperature physics and many-body physics, for instance.
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